Which country presents the most efficient economic policy on R&D?
In the era of new innovation goals geared towards the energy transition, the research and development / output spending mix is becoming more and more a key element of economic policies.
Also, the Global Innovation Index 2018 and WIPO propose to evaluate the efficiency of almost 126 economies in innovation through certain criteria (ranging from R & D expenditure, availability of researchers, number of patent applications, to number of mobile applications made etc.) and to promote the models that do the most with the least investment or means.
For more accuracy of this performance evaluation, the GII 2018 and the WIPO achieve this ranking by dividing the savings into 3 categories according to their income:
- The category of high-income countries is at the top of the list in this category Switzerland, followed by the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg and Hungary. Indeed, Switzerland has as many results in terms of knowledge and technology as high-yielding creative results for the R & D investments made. These criteria demonstrate that it easily transforms its R & D investments into results.
- Regarding middle-income countries, the Chinese and Malaysian models excel to the extent that they hold, despite their smaller means, have returns on investments comparable to those of high-income countries. These countries are followed by those with lower average incomes among which Ukraine, the Republic of Moldova and Vietnam stand out. Vietnam, for its part, is the first of its kind for net high-tech exports.
- Despite their limited means, African economies are not left behind with Tanzania and Madagascar being effective innovators.